Scripture and Scholars say...

1 Ki. 14:15, God “shall scatter” Israel “beyond the river,” not all in one place.

2 Ki. 10:32, “In those days the Lord began to cut off parts of Israel...” –before their final complete exile.

2 Ki. 17:6, The Assyrian king “captured Samaria and exiled Israel”

Deut. 29:28, “cast them into another land, as it is this day”

Isa. 5:26 “the end of the earth”

Isa. 11:11-12, “the four corners of the earth”

Isa. 27:13 (Vulgate), “those lost from the land of Assyria”

Isa. 49:9, “say to the prisoners, Go forth; to them that are in darkness, Show yourselves.” An address to the lost ten tribes according to Jewish midrash “Pesikta Rabbati 31:10”

Isa. 49:21, (Ten Tribes:) “where had they been?”

Jer. 15:4, “I will cause them to be removed into all kingdoms of the earth”

Hos. 2:14, “I will allure her, and bring her into the wilderness,” not a return to Canaan.

Hos. 8:8, “Israel is swallowed up now among the nations”

Hos. 9:17, “wanderers among the nations”

Ezra 1:15, ONLY “Judah and Benjamin” returned; remaining ten tribes did not return

“Israel and Judah... developed more or less independent of the other, Israel in the north and Judah in the south; and only gradually did circumstances bring them together, and then came the inevitable clash of interests, religious as well as political.” –"Hebrew Origins," Theophile James Meek, 1936, p.76

“Israel as a kingdom was never restored from Assyria, as Judah was from Babylon after 70 years.” –Jamieson, Faucett, Brown Commentary, p.650

“There never was a real return from the exile, although some individuals doubtless returned...the captivity of Israel did not actually terminate at 538 [B.C.], nor, in fact, ever.” –Geo. Ricker Berry, Colgate-Rochester Divinity School, “Was Ezekiel in the Exile?” pp.89, 92 (Journal of Biblical Literature 49 (1930)

“Many of the towns in southern Judah and Simeon were not reoccupied after the exile. This process was quite as disastrous as it is portrayed in the Old Testament...” –Thos. Davis, “Shifting Sands,” Oxford Univ. Press, 2004

“That the Redeemer comes ‘from Zion’ [Isa. 59:20] for Israel implies that Israel is in exile...” –G.K. Beale and D.A. Carson, “Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament,” Baker Academic, 2007, p.674

“The exile, into all lands, among all nations, was as irrevocably decreed as was the destruction of the city.” –Charles C. Torrey, Yale University, Journal of Biblical Literature 56 (1937), p.206

“...the returnees came only from the tribes of Judah and Benjamin —the exiles in Babylon. The ten tribes did not return...the loss of the [ten] tribes marked the greatest demographic defeat inscribed in Jewish memory since Biblical times.” –Zvi Ben-Dor Benite, “The Ten Lost Tribes: A World History,” Oxford Univ. Press, 2009, pp.17, 117

“Evidently it was a token return...” –Frank Moore Cross, Harvard University, “A Reconstruction Of The Judean Restoration,” Journal of Biblical Literature 94 (1975), p.15

“The tree of Israel, grown from one root with various branches, was cut into pieces.” –John Calvin, cited in Boer, “John Calvin,” pp. 190-191

“The ten [tribes] which had previously been carried away being scattered among the Parthians, Medes, Indians, and Ethiopians never returned to their native country, and are to this day held under the sway of barbarous nations.” –Sulpitius Severus (circa. 360-420 A.D.), Severus, Sacred History, bk ii, ch. Ii, in Schaff, et al., transl. Sulpitius Severus

“Jewish people often thought that ten of the twelve tribes were lost and would be restored only in the end time.” –Craig Keener, “A Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew,” Eerdmans, 1999, p.315

The ten tribes’ not returning opened “a huge wound that does not heal.” –Talmudic Haga, Sefer Ha-Berit Ha-Hadash

"The prophecy of a restored and reunited Israel and Judah...was never actually to be fulfilled... Intransigence on the part of both...produced separate and irreconcilable societies that were never able to reunite." -Bruce Vawter, "Amos, Hosea, Micah, With An Introduction To Classical Prophecy," p.81







Christian Commentary:
Steven M. Collins


The American Indians




Steven M. Collins


We are pleased to present articles by leading authors on the subject of the Biblical promises and covenants to Israel.

Author Steven M. Collins has written a wonderful four-book series on the Two-Houses of Israel. Ordering information is below.
Happy Reading!





The following article is reprinted with kind permission from Yair Davidy’s website at






By Steven M. Collins

Brit-am postings have included several comments and questions on the subject of American Indians recently.  The main problem in finding linkages between ancient Israelites and American Indian tribes is that such contacts occurred so long ago and on the other side of an extended "Dark Age" when most contacts were lost between the Old and New Worlds. While there is hard evidence that these contacts did occur, some of the evidence is more general. This topic is far too large to discuss in one email, but I will attempt to give a brief overview of the evidence on this subject.

To begin with, there is now no doubt that extensive contacts occurred between the Old and New Worlds prior to the Dark Ages. Much of these contacts and colonizations of the New World were by the Israelite/Phoenician Empire and its largest successor colony: Kirjath Hadeschath (or "Carthage" as the Romans called them). The late-Dr. Barry Fell, a Harvard Professor Emeritus, wrote a trilogy of books (Bronze Age America, Saga America, and America BC) which extensively documented many artifacts and inscriptions of these Old World civilizations in the Americas, but he never placed the evidence in a biblical context. Dr. Fell was roundly criticized by the "politically-correct" establishment for daring to print the truth about America's past. However, the evidence is so overwhelming that one of the most famous American archaeologists, the late-Dr. Cyrus Gordon, wrote in his book, Before Columbus, that "The Atlantic was crossed long before the Vikings, by different people during different centuries" (p. 187).

A number of linguistic studies of American Indian languages confirm early common roots with ancient Hebrew speakers.  In the 1998 volume of The Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers (ESOP), an article ("A Curious Element in Uto-Aztecan") by an author named Brian D. Stubbs provides evidence that the Indian family of languages called Uto-Aztecan has demonstrable similarities with the "very archaic" patterns of Hebrew and the Northwest Semitic family of languages (see p. 112). His article provides many examples of similarities between ancient Hebrew and the languages of Indian tribes from Central Mexico to the Southwest and Rocky Mountain tribes (Hopi, Utes, Paiutes, Shoshones, etc.) His conclusion that the similarities date to very ancient forms of Hebrew is supported by physical evidence. In New Mexico, the Ten Commandments are written in ancient paleo-Hebrew on a large stone which I have seen with my own eyes and there are other very ancient paleo-Hebrew inscriptions in the region as well. One member of the New Mexico Epigraphic Society took me to see some of these inscriptions, one of which he translated as: "tribe of Asher."  Photographs of some of these inscriptions appear in my recent book, The Origins and Empire of Ancient Israel.  It is my view that these inscriptions date to the time of King Solomon's Golden Age when he sent fleets to other continents and one particular fleet only returned every third year (I Kings 10:22).  It was expensive to build and provision a fleet of ships capable of trans-oceanic voyages and the only time that the Israelites had both the wealth to maintain such fleets and have sailors and settlers who adhered to the Ten Commandments while in North America would have been in the time of King Solomon. That era would have used the paleo-Hebrew characters found in the American Southwest.

Another study of Indian languages by Dr. E. Morgan Kelley of the College of William and Mary was published in the 1990 volume of ESOP (see pp. 83-91). It was entitled "North American Indian Tribal Names" and it identified related language groups among the Indian tribes based on language morphemes. One of the language groups was based on the morpheme "Dan," the name of one the tribes of Israel.

Another artifact with the Ten Commandments on it was unearthed in a burial mound in the Ohio River valley in 1860. It was on a small, portable stone and its letters were in the square Hebrew characters, confirming that it dated to a more recent century than the Ten Commandments stone in New Mexico. Photos and descriptions of this artifact also are in my above-named book.

Additionally, a Hebrew inscription called the Bat Creek stone was found in the American Southeast in the region of the Cherokee near the Tennessee/North Carolina border. It's authenticity has been documented by
both Dr. Fell and Dr. Gordon. Dr. Gordon's book, Before Columbus, includes a scathing denunciation of those who attempt to deny the authenticity of this artifact, which he dates to the 2nd century A.D. Dr. Gordon also documented Hebrew-language coins from the Bar Kochba period being found in Kentucky (p. 75 of same book), and Dr. Fell documented Hebrew-language coins being found in Kentucky, Missouri and Arkansas (p. 168 of Saga America).

A letter from a Georgian of Cherokee ancestry in the 1986 ESOP commented on a Cherokee legend that a race of pygmies once inhabited the Southern Appalachians. This Cherokee myth was laughed at by "establishment" types until pygmy skeletons were found in the region! Evidence presented in chapter 3 of Barry Fell's book, Bronze Age America, confirms that such a race did exist and their skulls are photographed for that book as evidence. Also noteworthy is that the Cherokee word for this pygmy race has the same root word as the languages of Old World languages, indicating either a Cherokee origin in the Old World or contact with Old World groups. The same chapter of Dr. Fell's book documents skeletons of both Mongoloid and Europoid settlers in Ancient America, indicating that the very ancient inhabitants of North America were multi-racial.

The evidence indicates that many Old World and Oriental groups explored and settled ancient America. Ties between these groups and their founding nations in the Old World and Asia were largely lost during the Dark Ages. Intermarriage and tribal rivalries and mergers surely contributed to the situation found by European explorers in the modern age: a North American continent inhabited by a diverse group of Indian tribes and nations which had different languages, appearances and cultures. Part of this multiracial reality was caused by the Carthaginian colonizations in the Americas, attested to by Aristotle and other Greek writers. Much physical evidence of the Carthaginian presence in ancient America is presented in my books as well as Dr. Fell's books. The Carthaginians were a multi-racial society with an army recruited from many racial/ethnic groups. Their presence in large numbers in the ancient New World led to the Meso-American awareness of the races of mankind as glyphs and statutes showing Indian, Negro and Caucasian faces have all been found and documented.