Scripture and Scholars say...


1 Ki. 14:15, God “shall scatter” Israel “beyond the river,” not all in one place.

2 Ki. 10:32, “In those days the Lord began to cut off parts of Israel...” –before their final complete exile.

2 Ki. 17:6, The Assyrian king “captured Samaria and exiled Israel”

Deut. 29:28, “cast them into another land, as it is this day”

Isa. 5:26 “the end of the earth”

Isa. 11:11-12, “the four corners of the earth”

Isa. 27:13 (Vulgate), “those lost from the land of Assyria”

Isa. 49:9, “say to the prisoners, Go forth; to them that are in darkness, Show yourselves.” An address to the lost ten tribes according to Jewish midrash “Pesikta Rabbati 31:10”

Isa. 49:21, (Ten Tribes:) “where had they been?”

Jer. 15:4, “I will cause them to be removed into all kingdoms of the earth”

Hos. 2:14, “I will allure her, and bring her into the wilderness,” not a return to Canaan.

Hos. 8:8, “Israel is swallowed up now among the nations”

Hos. 9:17, “wanderers among the nations”

Ezra 1:15, ONLY “Judah and Benjamin” returned; remaining ten tribes did not return

“Israel and Judah... developed more or less independent of the other, Israel in the north and Judah in the south; and only gradually did circumstances bring them together, and then came the inevitable clash of interests, religious as well as political.” –"Hebrew Origins," Theophile James Meek, 1936, p.76

“Israel as a kingdom was never restored from Assyria, as Judah was from Babylon after 70 years.” –Jamieson, Faucett, Brown Commentary, p.650

“There never was a real return from the exile, although some individuals doubtless returned...the captivity of Israel did not actually terminate at 538 [B.C.], nor, in fact, ever.” –Geo. Ricker Berry, Colgate-Rochester Divinity School, “Was Ezekiel in the Exile?” pp.89, 92 (Journal of Biblical Literature 49 (1930)

“Many of the towns in southern Judah and Simeon were not reoccupied after the exile. This process was quite as disastrous as it is portrayed in the Old Testament...” –Thos. Davis, “Shifting Sands,” Oxford Univ. Press, 2004

“That the Redeemer comes ‘from Zion’ [Isa. 59:20] for Israel implies that Israel is in exile...” –G.K. Beale and D.A. Carson, “Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament,” Baker Academic, 2007, p.674

“The exile, into all lands, among all nations, was as irrevocably decreed as was the destruction of the city.” –Charles C. Torrey, Yale University, Journal of Biblical Literature 56 (1937), p.206

“...the returnees came only from the tribes of Judah and Benjamin —the exiles in Babylon. The ten tribes did not return...the loss of the [ten] tribes marked the greatest demographic defeat inscribed in Jewish memory since Biblical times.” –Zvi Ben-Dor Benite, “The Ten Lost Tribes: A World History,” Oxford Univ. Press, 2009, pp.17, 117

“Evidently it was a token return...” –Frank Moore Cross, Harvard University, “A Reconstruction Of The Judean Restoration,” Journal of Biblical Literature 94 (1975), p.15

“The tree of Israel, grown from one root with various branches, was cut into pieces.” –John Calvin, cited in Boer, “John Calvin,” pp. 190-191

“The ten [tribes] which had previously been carried away being scattered among the Parthians, Medes, Indians, and Ethiopians never returned to their native country, and are to this day held under the sway of barbarous nations.” –Sulpitius Severus (circa. 360-420 A.D.), Severus, Sacred History, bk ii, ch. Ii, in Schaff, et al., transl. Sulpitius Severus

“Jewish people often thought that ten of the twelve tribes were lost and would be restored only in the end time.” –Craig Keener, “A Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew,” Eerdmans, 1999, p.315

The ten tribes’ not returning opened “a huge wound that does not heal.” –Talmudic Haga, Sefer Ha-Berit Ha-Hadash

"The prophecy of a restored and reunited Israel and Judah...was never actually to be fulfilled... Intransigence on the part of both...produced separate and irreconcilable societies that were never able to reunite." -Bruce Vawter, "Amos, Hosea, Micah, With An Introduction To Classical Prophecy," p.81

 

 

 

 

 

A Key-word Study Leading To A Greater Bible Understanding

 

A Study Into The Meaning

Of The Word, "Gentile"

By the late curtis clair ewing

The word "Gentile" comes to us from the Latin, "Gentilis," which originally meant a non-Roman. The original Greek New Testament word was "ethnos," the source of our English word, "ethnic." It can mean a relative, rather than an alien or a non-Hebrew. The Hebrew word for Gentile is even more interesting, as Pastor Ewing explains below.

A few years ago the writer was in the home of a friend, and as I looked over her books I saw that she had one of these large dictionaries that are usually found only in public libraries. I said to her, "May I use your dictionary?" I knew that she had always been interested in the correct use of words, so I thought that this would be a good way to start a conversation concerning the identity of Israel. I turned the pages to find the word, "gentile." Immediately the lady asked, "What is the word you are looking for?" I explained, and she wanted to know what the dictionary had to say. I gave her to understand that if the dictionary was correct she couldn't possibly be a gentile, which she had always claimed to be. Then I read her this definition: "A gentile is a pagan or a heathen or some one who is not a Jew or a Christian." "Now," I said, "since you are a Christian you cannot possibly be a gentile." She was rather startled at what I told her. Then I went into the meaning of that same word as used in the Bible, and you may be assured that before I was through she had many of her long-established ideas upset.

A great deal of confusion and misunderstanding has been caused by the use of the word "gentile" in the English translation of the Bible. Let us take up a brief study of it. It should always be remembered that foreign languages often lose the strength of their meaning through translation. Then it should also be remembered that some words have many meanings.

Take the word man as an illustration. Generically speaking it means mankind generally, both men and women. But if it is used in the same sentence with the word woman, it means the male of the species. If it is used in the same sentence with the word boy it means the mature of the species. Thus the word man has three meanings, the meaning of the word being determined by its use in the context.

The word, gentile, is a translation of the Hebrew words goi (singular) and goyim (plural), and the Greek words ethnos (singular) and ethne (plural). Using the word gentile to translate these words is often misleading because it is a misapplication of the Hebrew and Greek words as used in the Bible. The modern use of the word has come to mean 'non-Jew' or 'non-Israel,' but that meaning cannot be maintained in the face of the evidence I will present in this study.

The Hebrew word goi is a collective noun meaning nation or sometimes a collective body of people. But it has been translated into English many different ways. The word occurs 557 times in the Old Testament. The Authorized Version of the Bible translates it gentile 30 times; heathen 142 times; nation 373 times; people 11 times; another once. But the American Standard Revised Version cuts the occurrence of gentile from 30 to 9 times, and then shows in the footnotes of 5 of those 9 times that the word nations should have been used.

Of course, the word nation is not always considered an exact equivalent term, because there is so much political significance attached to it. But it is much better than the word gentile, and some of our best translators prefer the word nations. This is also shown by the way the Revised Version eliminates almost entirely the word gentiles.

The same thing is true of the Greek word, ethnos. It occurs 164 times in the New Testament. In the Authorized Version, it is translated gentiles 93 times; heathen 5 times; nation or nations 64 times in the text and 7 times in the footnotes, making 103 occurrences altogether. But in the footnotes it is corrected 15 times to read nations, making the final count 88. So both the Hebrew word, goi, and the Greek word, ethnos, have most frequently been translated as nations, than any other English word.

Though the word gentiles and the word heathen are used many times in the Bible, the fact is that there are no Hebrew or Greek words that would demand this translation. If the reader will consult a good dictionary, you will find that the word, gentile, is derived from the Latin word, gentilis, and properly understood means non-something. As used by a Jew or an Israelite, it would mean non-Jew or non-Israelite. But they are not the only people who have a right to use the word.

For instance, suppose a Buddhist priest spoke Latin and he wanted to refer to the nations that were not Buddhist, he would call them gentilis. In Hebrew and Greek, there is no exact equivalent to the Latin word gentilis, or the English word, gentile. Nevertheless, if this same priest spoke Hebrew and Greek along with his Latin, and wanted to refer to the nations which were not Buddhist, he would call them goyim if speaking Hebrew, and ethne if speaking Greek, and each time he would naturally include the Jewish and Israel people. Likewise, a Moslem priest could use the three languages and refer to the Jews and Israel as gentilis, goyim, and ethne.

One important thing to always keep in mind is that goi and ethnos are collective nouns and cannot properly be translated to mean an individual person. They always refer to a group. There is no such thing as 'A GENTILE' - it is always plural. Gentiles in its plural sense may at times be used to translate goi and ethnos but its use gives an added thought not intended in the original word which cannot in every case be justified.

Another important word found in the Hebrew text, which needs only passing notice is the Hebrew word "am" and is found many times in the Old Testament text. It is translated nation only 17 times. It is usually translated people, for it occurs that way 1,835 times in our English text. Occasionally it is qualified by the phrase, "every people," but when it is rendered "the people" it usually means Israel. But this is not the word that has been the source of misunderstanding. Translations of the Hebrew word, goi, and the Greek word, ethnos, have caused the trouble.

The Hebrew word, goi, and the Greek word, ethnos, in their singular and plural forms are used in three ways in the Bible:

1. In referring to the Israel and Jewish people. Let us note the verses which follow below, found in both the Old and New Testaments, which refer to either the Jews or Israel as a nation. These verses use either the Hebrew word, goi, or the Greek word, ethnos. In order to demonstrate the absurdity of always translating goi or ethnos as gentile, we suggest that you read the following verses, substituting the word, gentile or heathen, for nation or nations:

Genesis 12:2, "And I will make of thee a great nation." (A "great gentile"???)
Genesis 17:4-5, "...thou [Abraham] shalt be a father of many nations." ("father of many gentiles"?)
Genesis 20:4, "Lord, wilt thou slay also a righteous nation?" (try substituting heathen)
Genesis 25:23, "Two nations are in thy womb..." (Try the word heathen or gentiles here)
Genesis 35:11, "Be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall be of thee."
Genesis 48:19, "...his [Ephraim's] seed shall become a multitude of nations."
Isaiah 1:4, "Ah, sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity..."
Isaiah 10:6, "I will send him against an hypocritical nation..."
Jeremiah 31:36, "Israel...shall cease from being a nation before me for ever." (try gentile!)
Luke 7:5, "For he loveth our nation, and hath built us a synagogue."
John 11:48, "...and the Romans shall come and take away both our place and nation."
John 11:50, "...that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not."
Acts 24:2, "...very worthy deeds are done unto this nation by thy providence."
Acts 24:17, "...I came to bring alms to my nation, and offerings."

From the foregoing verses and many others which could be given, it can easily be seen that the Hebrew word, goi, and the Greek word, ethnos, do not always refer to non-Israel people.

2. Now let us read a few verses where the same words are used and, as can be seen, refer very definitely to non-Israel people:
Genesis 14:9, "With Chedorlaomer, the king of Elam, and with Tidal, king of nations..."
Genesis 21:13, "And also the son of the bond-woman will I make a nation..."
Genesis 21:18, "...for I will make him a great nation."
Exodus 9:24, "...there was none like it in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation."
Exodus 34:24, "For I will cast out the nations before thee..."
Isaiah 37:12, "Have the gods of the nations delivered them which my fathers have destroyed...?"
Matthew 10:5, "Go not into the way of the gentiles..."
Matthew 24:7, "For nation shall rise against nation..."
Luke 21:24, "And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations..."
Acts 7:7, "And the nation to whom they shall be in bondage will I judge, said God."
Acts 8:9, "But there was a certain man called Simon, which before time in the same city used sorcery, and bewitched the people of Samaria..."
Acts 10:45, "...because that on the gentiles also was poured out the gifts of the Holy Ghost."

In the above verses three words have been used to translate the same Greek word, ethnos, and they are: nations, gentiles, and people.

3. Now we come to the third way in which the words have been used, and that is to describe all nations, which of course always includes Israel and non-Israel nations.
Genesis 22:18, "And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed."
Genesis 25:23, "Two nations are in thy womb..."
I Chronicles 16:24, "Declare His glory among the heathen; his marvelous works among all nations."
Psalm 9:19-20, "...let the heathen be judged in thy sight. Put them in fear, O Lord: that the nations may know themselves to be but men."

Notice that in the last two verses, the translators have used two different words, heathen and nations, to translate the same Hebrew word, goyim.
Matthew 24:9, 14, "...ye shall be hated of all nations for My Name's sake...And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations..."
Matthew 28:19, "Go ye therefore, and teach all nations..."
Acts 10:35, "But in every nation he that feareth Him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with Him."

Attention should also be called to another Greek word erroneously translated gentiles. The word is hellen and means Greeks. It is used 27 times in the New Testament. In 20 places it is properly translated Greeks, but in 7 other places in the Authorized Version, it is erroneously translated gentiles. This has been corrected in the Revised Version and nearly all subsequent translations. For example, the Authorized Version translates John 7:35 to read: "Will he go unto the dispersed among the Gentiles and teach the Gentiles?" Nearly all revised versions translate this to read: "Will he go unto the dispersed among the Greeks and teach the Greeks?" Take as another example I Corinthians 10:32, "Give none offense, neither to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God." Now the writer has read several articles by well-known Bible teachers who say that this verse gives the only classes that God now recognizes. In other words they claim on the authority of this verse that the human race is divided into Jews, Gentiles, and the Church of God.

Now if this text were given to show a division of humanity, then it leaves the vast majority of mankind out entirely, because the word that is translated gentiles in this verse is hellen and means Greeks. So if, as these men have claimed, this verse proves there are only three classes of people in the world which God now recognizes, they are the Jews, the Greeks, and the Christians. Everyone else is left out.

By using the same method of reasoning we could quote Galatians 3:28 and prove that God does not recognize any distinction in the human race; then we could go to the other extreme and quote Colossians 3:11 to prove that God recognizes eight divisions of mankind. In both cases we would be taking the verses out of their context just as these men have done. But all of the confusion over this text would have been avoided if the word Greeks had been used instead of gentiles. Paul was writing to the Corinthians. Corinth was in Greece. They had three classes of people there - Jew, Greek, and Christian. Had Paul been writing to the Romans he no doubt would have said, "Give none offense, neither to the Jews, nor to the Romans, nor to the church of God."

Besides these two examples, there are four other places where hellen has been translated Greeks. These are found in Romans 2:9, 10; 3:9; and I Corinthians 12:13.

While on this subject, a few words should be said about the way the word, gentiles, has been used in the Epistle to the Romans, one of the most important books in the New Testament. And on this matter I will borrow some thoughts from the late Dr. William Pascoe Goard.

In Dr. Goard's book, "Epistle to the Romans," he has given some illuminating comments on how the word ethne refers to the ten-tribed Israel. These are found in the fourth and fifth chapters of his book. He shows very clearly that chapters 9, 10, and 11 of Romans refer to ten-tribed Israel. In these chapters the Apostle Paul quotes quite freely from Hosea, Isaiah, and Elijah, and as Dr. Goard shows, all of these quotations refer to facts in the history of ten-tribed Israel, and not in the history of Judah nor in the history of any other nation. Thus when the word gentiles (Greek word ethne) is used in these three chapters, it definitely is speaking of ten-tribed Israel, and no other race. It is not a contrast between Israel and non-Israel people. It is a contrast between Israel in 975 BC, and Israel known as the nations in AD 60.

Do not let the word gentiles mislead you. The Greek word is ethne and means nations. The Apostle Paul in this Israel section of his epistle is merely contrasting Israel's former state when she was known as Israel with her state in his day when she was known as the nations. To use the popularized meaning of the word, they had become gentilized in the sense that they were not known as Israel. Israel was one nation God had called out from among other peoples; but now in her Spiritual decline, she was just like the other nations.

She had lost her identity so much that the Apostle Paul said that blindness was to stay on Israel until the "fullness of the gentiles" (nations) be come in. (Romans 11:25) This 'fullness of the gentiles' should be translated 'fullness of nations.' It is a direct reference to Genesis 48:19, where it is stated that Ephraim was to become a "multitude of nations" in the last days. This is confirmed by the fact that both Dr. Delitzsch's translation of the New Testament into Hebrew - sold by the British and Foreign Bible Society - and Ginsburg Salkinson's New Testament, published by the Trinitarian Bible Society, for the use of the Jews, have the very same Hebrew words - me lo hag-goyim - in Romans 11:25, that we find in Genesis 48:19, in the Hebrew Old Testament, and in this verse only. We use the expression "multitude of nations" because it is given as the correct reading in most Bibles in preference to fullness of nations. In other words, Israel was to be blind to her identity until the tribe of Ephraim became a multitude of nations. That time has arrived now and that is the reason our identity as the Israel of God is becoming known. As Isaiah 25:7 reads, "He will destroy in this mountain the face of the covering cast over all people, and the veil that is spread over all nations." That veil is being lifted now and the prophetic identity of all nations is becoming known.

Some scholars, in translating Genesis 48:19, where the Hebrew is me lo hag-goyim render it a company of gentile nations. The writer is convinced that a company or multitude of nations is the better translation. However, there is a germ of truth in their translation if the right meaning is attached to the word gentile; that these people would become so much like other nations that they would not be recognized as Israel. But that, of course, is a different meaning given to the word than is meant in the original text.

To summarize: the word gentile is derived from the Latin word gentilis and is only one of several words that are used to translate the Hebrew word goi and the Greek word ethnos into English. The best word to use is nations. It would have been better if the word gentile had never appeared in the English text. Neither goi nor ethnos necessarily mean non-Israel, as has been shown above.

Note: The Greek words ethne and ethnos, translated nations or gentiles, are the source of our English word, ethnic, signifying a blood-relative. They certainly do not mean 'heathen' or 'non-Israelite' as is popularly taught today.

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